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Implantation Of Embryo In Human

                 The procedure by which the embryo, which is around 7 days old from fertilization, attaches to the endometrium and starts the gestation is known as embryo implantation. The development of the embryo and the organs necessary for its feeding, such as the placenta and vitelline vesicle, will then start. In addition, the lady will start to feel pregnant as the synthesis of the beta-hCG hormone starts. On the other hand, it is crucial that this uterine layer has certain qualities of thickness and appearance in order for the embryo to implant in the endometrium and give rise to a developing pregnancy.

Conditions for implantation

               Even if you have sex without protection on fertile days, embryo implantation does not occur in every menstrual cycle. It is necessary to produce the ideal uterine environment so that the endometrium and embryo can communicate. Because of this, even though laboratory fertilization has taken place and high-quality embryos are transferred during assisted reproductive cycles, implantation is not always safe. The most crucial elements for embryo implantation and the subsequent achievement of pregnancy will be covered in the section that follows.

Factors related to the embryo

       An embryo must be in the blastocyst stage before it may attach to the endometrium. It consists of two well-differentiated portions and has 200–400 cells at this stage of development.

Internal cell mass: cells from which the embryo itself will develop.

Trophectoderm: the outermost cells, which are responsible for creating the placenta and other embryonic attachments.

                The blastocyst must also have reached its maximum degree of expansion—the hatched blastocyst—and have disengaged from the zona pellucida, the covering that covers it, before it can be implanted. The quality of the embryo, which can only be assessed in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment, is another important aspect that will determine if implantation takes place. On the other hand, the proper transfer of the embryo from the tube to the uterus must take place in cycles where fertilization naturally takes place in the fallopian tubes.

Factors related to the endometrium

                  The endometrium, the uterus’ innermost layer, is replaced after each menstrual cycle in order to make room for the embryo when a woman is pregnant. Because of this, the endometrium is lost and removed every month in the form of menstruation if implantation does not occur. The action of the female sex hormones, estrogens and progesterone, during the menstrual cycle causes the endometrium to gradually thicken and alter. The endometrium must be open to implantation for the embryo to take place. This is accomplished when the endometrium is trilaminar in appearance and has an endometrial thickness of 7 to 10 mm. A close interaction with the embryo is also mediated by the expression of certain molecules in the uterus, including cytokines, integrins, adhesion molecules, and growth factors.

When does implantation occur?

                The endometrium must be receptive for the embryo to develop. The term “implantation window” refers to this period of the menstrual cycle, which lasts roughly 4 days. The implantation window typically lasts from day 20 to day 24 of the menstrual cycle in women. If fertilization has taken place, the blastocyst will be about 6 or 7 days old at this point and prepared for implantation.

                        However, some women have shifted implantation windows, which can result in unsuccessful implantation and infertility. In essence, implantation happens at a precise point in the menstrual cycle when the endometrium undergoes a hormonally-induced transformation from a non-receptive to a receptive state, and the embryo and endometrium are in synchrony.

Phases of implantation

                 Once interaction has been formed between the embryo and the maternal endometrium, the nesting or implantation of the embryo, which typically occurs in the middle third of the posterior face of the uterus, can begin. We will outline each of the phases that make up this implementation period in the section that follows.

Hatching and pre-contact

              The embryo starts to hatch on days 5 and 6 of development and continues to do so until it separates from its zona pellucida, the outer protein membrane that served as protection for it in the early days following fertilization.         The zona pellucida thins as the embryo grows until it eventually disintegrates. Through a series of contractions, the embryo eventually escapes from it and starts interacting with the endometrium. Blastocyst that have already hatched can be transplanted to the uterus in patients undergoing IVF treatment, either because hatching has already taken place in culture or because aided hatching has been carried out. Egg implantation may be favored by assisted hatching.

Apposition

                The embryo is immobile during this phase as it locates itself on the endometrial tissue and is oriented so that its internal cell mass faces the endometrium to allow for the proper formation of the placenta later on. The alleged pinopods are crucial in this situation: These are endometrial epithelial cells’ cytoplasmic projections, which provide interaction between the blastocyst and its environment. The presence of these pinopods, which only form during the implantation window and vanish around the 24th day of the cycle, is evidence that they are distinct morphological markers of endometrial receptivity.

Adhesion

                 The endometrial epithelium and the blastocyst trophectoderm are joined by the adhesion molecules integrins 1, 3, and 4, L-selectins, proteoglycans, fibronectins, etc. Around 7 days after fertilization, when the blastocyst already measures 300–400 m in diameter, this takes place. Although the process of implanting a blastocyst in the mother’s endometrium may appear straightforward at first glance, it is actually very complicated and not entirely understood.

Embryo Implantation
Embryo Implantation

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